I liked the distinction drawn by a commenter.
distinguish two situations. One, the student wants to learn about something, because she finds it interesting or wants to use it for something. She wants to learn and wants the knowledge to stay with her.
In the other situation, the student is not inherently interested and/or does not expect to use the information. The student may well want to learn enough for long enough to pass but doesn’t mind if all that knowledge just decays away once the course (or the test!) is over.
Right. The first situation calls for providing content and feedback. The second situation calls for providing reward and punishment (assuming that we know what is best for the student). Note that the reward can be psychic reward, such as the student feeling closer affinity with a teacher that the student respects.